What are the reasons why China's low-end bolts are exported in large quantities and high-end bolts h
Issuing time:2019-12-18 09:49
In the first eight months of this year, China's machinery industry achieved a profit of 1.14 trillion, an increase of 14.12% over the same period last year; in terms of import and export, the export volume of machinery industry in 2016 was 272.7 billion US dollars, the import value was 374.8 billion US dollars, and the surplus was 102.1 billion US dollars. The data seems beautiful, but Cai Weici, an "old mechanic" and special consultant of China Machinery Industry Federation, is not happy.
"Bolts are fasteners that connect parts. But small bolts, in China's high-end equipment almost need to import 100%. Why? "At the seminar on Intelligent Manufacturing Development held on October 28, Tan Jianrong and Cai Weici, chief scientists of the national 973 project and academicians of the Chinese Academy of engineering, answered this question from different angles.
At the seminar on Intelligent Manufacturing Development held in Jinan on October 28, Cai Weici told Science and Technology Daily: "although a large number of basic components and parts such as low-voltage electrical appliances, fasteners and bearings are exported in large quantities, high-end products must be imported. Almost every small industry has the reality of a large number of low-end exports and a large number of high-end imports. " He believes that in the five major projects deployed in "made in China 2025", the phenomenon of hot intelligent manufacturing, strong industrial base and difficult innovation drive exists everywhere. In the process of mechanical industry from large to strong, weak innovation ability and weak foundation are still the main constraints.
Tan Jianrong, chief scientist of the national 973 project and academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, paid attention to this issue from another angle. "The precision machining of key parts such as high precision and large size requires high-end forging machine tools, which are also the foundation of major projects. However, with the increasing demand for extreme working conditions such as high precision, deep drawing and ultra-low speed in China, There are many difficulties in the independent design and development of forging machine tools in China. "
He listed a group of data: in 2016, China's metalworking machine tool trade deficit was $4.5 billion, the instrument deficit was $12.6 billion, and the automobile deficit was as high as $33.8 billion, and the contradiction of high-end supply was prominent. He also took the high-speed force machine as an example. In Japan, this kind of equipment widely used in the stamping of small precision parts can reach 4000 times per minute under the pressure of 8mm stroke and 100kN, while the highest speed of domestic products is only 1200 times per minute. A more macroscopic fact is that the digital control rate of forging machine tools in Europe and America can reach 80%, while in China, it is less than 30%.
Cai Weici believes that the high-quality manufacturing required by "made in China 2025" not only depends on management, but also depends on the support of high-level basic manufacturing capacity. "Without the support of high-level basic parts, basic materials, basic technology and basic machinery, the image of" low-grade goods "made in China cannot be changed." He said.
However, it is gratifying that some key enterprises keep pace with the times and constantly solve the above problems. Both Tan Jianrong and Cai Weici mentioned a state-owned enterprise, Jinan No.2 Machine Tool Group. In the 1950s, China's first gantry planer and the first mechanical press began to develop more than 450 kinds of China's first machines (sets), and undertook 11 national science and technology major projects. The domestic market share of large-scale stamping and punching equipment reached 80%, until it became one of the world's three major data stamping equipment suppliers.
"Jinan No.2 machine tool is a banner of China's machine tool industry, and it is also a rare evergreen tree in the machine tool industry. Relying on independent innovation, service-oriented manufacturing and open development, they have demonstrated to the outside world how a traditional machine tool backbone enterprise has become a leader in the industry Cai Weici said that this is a case worth learning from.